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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION   383

has had to be made between two fundamentally different concep-
tions of education, has prevented the followers of the two masters
from wholly losing touch with the essential principles which they
sought to embody in their pedagogical systems. The proof of that
is to be seen in the very considerable modification and develop-
ment which both systems, and notably the Herbartian, have
undergone in the period under review.

(6) Herbart and Froebel, however, have not been our only
masters. In 1859 the publication of the Origin of Species gave
the thinking world a new master in Charles Darwin ; and all the
great problems of life, which are constantly at issue in education
and the other political concerns of men, have been raised in a
fresh form. If the modern theory of education has advanced
beyond the stage at which it was left by the German thinkers, it
is because we have been re-thinking their ideas in terms of the
category of evolution. The virtue of the idea of evolution is that
it helps to combine and reconcile the various opposites which
tended to appear in their isolation in Froebel and Herbart.
Evolution implies both development from within and deter-
mination from without. It depends, on the one hand, on the nature
of the organism: that is the Froebelian side of the doctrine.
But, on the other hand, it is conditioned and directed by the
environment: that is the Herbartian counterpart. The higher
truth, only imperfectly comprehended by either Froebel or
Herbart, is that organism and environment conspire to produce
the final result. At the same time, it must be added, the effect
of evolutionary thought on education has been to emphasize the
part played by the nature of the child in the process of education
rather than that of the external factors that bring about its develop-
ment- It was the interest in the biological aspects of education
rising out of the work of Darwin and his successors that gave the
impulse to the child-study movement which was the most notable
feature in educational work in the last twenty years of the Nine-
teenth Century; and though the movement in its original form
has largely spent its force, the problems it raised regarding the
primitive elements in human nature and their modification under
social conditions are still to the fore.

(c) Running through all recent thought about education is the
conviction that a scientific knowledge of the facts with which
the educator has to deal is the pre-condition of any satisfactory